Canlaon has a maximum elevation of 2435 m and a basal diameter of 30 km. Canlaon consists of a multitude of craters and parasitic cones aligned linearly, with an older caldera in its central portion. Most of the older cratershave formed lakes or lagoons. The volcanic edifice has been built by airfall deposits, lava agglutinates and lava flows, pyroclastic flows and lahar.
The earliest record of Canlaon's eruption dates back to 1866. Since then, it has had at least 15 eruption periods, the latest occuring in 1988.
Canlaon volcano (also spelled Kanlaon), the most active volcano in the central Philippines, forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The summit of Canlaon contains a broad northern crater with a crater-lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active crater to the south.